Moving Beyond Sinking or Swimming: Reconceptualizing the Needs of Beginning Mathematics Teachers

From Section:
Beginning Teachers
Aug. 01, 2012

Source: Teachers College Record, Volume 114 Number 8, 2012.

Focus of Study

The purpose of this article is to add to and challenge the conversations about what learning to teach mathematics requires and how its complexity makes content-specific induction and rich opportunities to learn not only desirable but also essential.

The authors use a framing of teaching as a practice that is fundamentally about connection of students and content.

The authors report on the cases of two well-started novice mathematics teachers.
These cases come from a larger study of novice mathematics and science teachers in subject-specific induction programs across the United States.

Research Design
Exploratory case study based on interviews and observations.


One new teacher made considerable progress in thinking about and using knowledge of students to enhance mathematical learning.
However, there were still several areas in which the new teacher missed opportunities to probe student understanding and further connect students to mathematics.
And yet, because of the teacher’s competence relative to other new teachers, her support from her mentor was diminishing.
This left her with few opportunities for support in reflecting on her practice.

The second new teacher struggled to make sense of the role of the teacher.
She was a strong beginning teacher in a context that provided support and encouragement for student-centered teaching.
However, she struggled to envision and enact a teaching role that either allowed students to make their own connections to mathematics or enabled her to learn how to work toward that role.


The two new teachers made considerable progress in their teaching.
However, there was still much about the complexity of teaching, specifically teaching math, that the new teachers had to learn.
This study suggests that we need to go beyond evaluation of visible performance or attention to instructional strategies to help new teachers think about how to simultaneously manage the complex relationships with students, and with mathematical content.

Updated: Jan. 17, 2017
Beginning teachers | Case studies | Learning to teach | Mathematics teachers | Teacher role