Source: *Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1),* 4-24. (2009)

(Reviewed by the Portal Team)

What knowledge is needed to teach mathematics with digital technologies?

In 1986 Lee Shulman launched a new way of thinking about the knowledge teachers need for teaching with a construct that he called pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). This new way of thinking about the knowledge teachers need for teaching called for the integration of content knowledge (the knowledge previously considered the primary knowledge for teachers) and pedagogical knowledge (the knowledge about teaching and learning).

Grossman’s (1989, 1990) research identified four central components of PCK to focus the description and understanding of the knowledge needing development in the preparation programs: (a) an overarching conception of what it means to teach a particular subject;

(b) knowledge of instructional strategies and representations for teaching particular subject matter topics;

(c) knowledge of students’ understandings, thinking, and learning in the subject area;

(d) knowledge of curriculum and curriculum materials with learning subject matter.

Numerous researchers focused on the integration of technology, content, and pedagogy in much the same way that Shulman described PCK, to gain a broader perspective on the knowledge teachers need for teaching with technology. In essence, they defined technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) as that body of knowledge teachers needed for teaching with and about technology in their assigned subject areas and grade levels.

TPCK was proposed as the strict intersection between the three individual knowledge constructs of technology, pedagogy, and subject matter content. The discussion often expanded beyond this intersection to include the overlapping constructs of technological content knowledge (TCK), technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK), and PCK (Koehler & Mishra, 2008).

Beginning in 2007, the AMTE Technology Committee focused on the task of creating a set of mathematics teacher standards to promote the implementation of technology in the context of teaching and learning mathematics in grades preK-12 as envisioned in the NETS-T. These new mathematics teacher standards are intended to provide a framework for guiding professional practice that supports the improvement of mathematics teaching and learning.

The themes consider the teacher knowledge of incorporating technology in teaching mathematics as the knowledge and beliefs teachers demonstrate consistent with

• An overarching conception about the purposes for incorporating technology in teaching mathematics;

• Knowledge of students’ understandings, thinking, and learning of mathematics with technology; • Knowledge of curriculum and curricular materials that integrate technology in learning and teaching mathematics;

• Knowledge of instructional strategies and representations for teaching and learning mathematics with technologies.

The AMTE Technology Committee decided to unpack the teacher levels in thinking and understanding in the process of the development of TPACK, as described in the Mathematics Teacher TPACK Standards. Four major themes further framed the Mathematics Teacher TPACK Development Model: Curriculum and Assessment, Learning, Teaching, and Access.

The standards and model provide structured detail to further the work of various groups.

The proposals may guide teachers, researchers, teacher educators, professional development consultants, and school administrators in the development and evaluation of professional development activities, mathematics education programs, and school mathematics programs.

References

Association of Mathematics Teacher Educators. (2006). *Preparing teachers to use technology to enhance the learning of mathematics.* Retrieved from https://amte.net/

Grossman, P. L. (1989). A study in contrast: Sources of pedagogical content knowledge for secondary English. *Journal of Teacher Education, 40(5)*, 24-31.

Grossman, P. L. (1990). *The making of a teacher: Teacher knowledge and teacher education*. New York: Teachers College Press.

Koehler, M. J. & Mishra, P. (2008). *Introducing technological pedagogical content knowledge*. In AACTE Committee on Innovation and Technology (Eds)., Handbook of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) for educators (pp. 3-29). New York: Routledge.

Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. *Educational Researcher, 15*, 4-14.