Source: Review of Educational Research, 81(2): 201-233, (June 2011).
The current review critically examines 15 empirical studies, conducted since the mid-1980s, on the effects of support, guidance, and orientation programs—known as induction—for beginning teachers.
Most of the studies reviewed provide empirical support for the claim that support and assistance for beginning teachers have a positive impact on three sets of outcomes: teacher commitment and retention, teacher classroom instructional practices, and student achievement.
Of the studies on commitment and retention, most showed that beginning teachers who participated in induction showed positive impacts.
For classroom instructional practices, the majority of studies reviewed showed that beginning teachers who participated in some kind of induction performed better at various aspects of teaching, such as keeping students on task, using effective student questioning practices, adjusting classroom activities to meet students’ interests, maintaining a positive classroom atmosphere, and demonstrating successful classroom management.
For student achievement, almost all of the studies showed that students of beginning teachers who participated in induction had higher scores, or gains, on academic achievement tests.
There were, however, exceptions to this overall pattern—in particular a large randomized controlled trial of induction in a sample of large, urban, low-income schools—which found some significant positive effects on student achievement but no effects on either teacher retention or teachers’ classroom practices.
The review closes by attempting to reconcile these contradictory findings.