This study attempted to validate the argument that special knowledge is needed for teaching, in addition to pure mathematical knowledge. The authors explored participants’ knowledge with respect to four teaching practices: providing and evaluating explanations; selecting and using representations; analyzing student errors, misconceptions, and non-conventional solutions; and selecting tasks. The authors found no statistically significant differences between the three groups under consideration in the pure mathematical knowledge items. However, the findings suggest that measuring teacher knowledge by using multiple-choice tests might mask true differences that may exist among participants from different populations. Hence, alternative approaches are needed to tap into participants’ knowledge.