This article aims at investigating the impact of structural differences in teacher education on teachers’ CK and PCK. Therefore, the authors conducted a cross-sectional comparison with German pre- and inservice mathematics teachers at different points in their teaching careers. The findings showed that the CK of the teacher groups considered here differed significantly. As expected, the largest differences in CK and PCK were found between the beginning and the end of initial teacher education. Differences in the structures of teacher education were reasonably well reflected in participants’ CK and PCK.