This study investigates the relationship between new teachers' beliefs about instruction and teaching practices. It also discusses some possible reasons for the relationships between teacher beliefs and teacher practices within national and international contexts. To examine the relationships between new teachers’ beliefs and their instructional practices, the authors selected new teachers in four OECD countries including Hungary, Korea, Norway, and Turkey. The findings showed that the instructional practices of new teachers from the four selected countries were neither consistent nor aligned with their beliefs about instruction. One of the reasons for this result may be that new teachers’ self-reported instructional practices might differ significantly from their actual performance.