This study explores how professional learning communities (PLCs) can enhance beginning teachers’ professional learning in differentiated instruction (DI). Furthermore, it examines how structural and cultural school conditions foster the development of PLCs in the schools’ organization. A comparative analysis was carried out in three schools with high (case A), medium (case B), and low (case C) levels of beginning teachers’ professional learning in DI.The analysis indicated that the three cases could be situated at different stages of PLC development. The authors can situate case C in the ‘beginning stage’, case B can be allocated to the ‘evolving stage’, and case A can be assigned to the ‘mature stage’. Furthermore, the authors found that organizational structures and cultural school conditionsin these three cases were related to different stages of developing PLC.