A Study of Comprehensive School Reform Programs in Arizona

From Section:
Instruction in Teacher Training
Nov. 22, 2008

Source: Teachers College Record, Volume 110 Number 11, 2008, p. 2319-2340


The U.S. federal government has been interested in improving the performance of students who come from low-income homes since the time of Lyndon Johnson’s “Great Society” initiatives in the 1960s. The current administration strongly supports the belief that good schools can be created and has funded the Comprehensive School Reform Program (CSR) to support these beliefs. This article briefly reviews literature related to school reform throughout this period. The article describes this research plan to study CSR elementary schools in the state of Arizona and introduces the articles included in this special issue.

Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study

The basic intent of this study was to inform working theories of learning, motivation, and social/emotional development in school contexts in Grades 3–5. The authors hoped that an emphasis on theory, contextual enactment, and participant mediation would yield a richer picture of classroom practices and motivational dynamics that might underlie student achievement and CSR effectiveness. This study focused in particular on participant perspectives (principals and students) and classroom practices associated with CSR programs in elementary schools in the state of Arizona.

Research Design

The research program includes interview (with principals), observation (of classroom practices), and survey measures and an adaptation of Thematic Apperception Test procedures (with students).


School reform initiatives can profit from more research on participant perceptions, actual classroom practices, and student mediation of those practices. These understandings can better link program design and student achievement to enhance the effectiveness of comprehensive school reform initiatives.

Updated: Jan. 17, 2017
Classroom observation | Elementary schools | Programs | Reforms | Theories