In this study, the authors aimed investigated to identify elements that constitute the practical rationality of mathematics teaching. Specifically, they focused on the assumptions that participants made regarding what should constitute the launch of a problem-based lesson. The authors hypothesized that different assumptions may lead to tensions and dilemmas when launching a problem. The authors conclude that the manner in which teachers set up a problem can reduce the opportunities for high-level mathematical reasoning. Hence, they argue that the launch is important for teachers to maximize student engagement and mathematical reasoning. They also note that teachers’ decisions about launching a problem can enable students to exercise conceptual agency.