The current study examines the challenges that students experience in the consolidation of knowledge in mathematics and education. The findings reveal that the epistemological beliefs of the three students differed between the two disciplines. The authors argue that all the students tended to regard mathematical knowledge as certain and coherent in nature. In education, however, they relied more on personal opinions and experiences as sources and justifications of knowledge. They also identify six main areas that can challenge the consolidation of mathematical and pedagogical knowledge.