This study examined how primary school teachers were trained to teach early reading and mathematics in six Sub-Saharan African countries (Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Senegal, Tanzania and Uganda). The authors found that Tanzanian primary teachers were most inclusive. They found that newly-qualified teachers saw various explanations for their learners' difficulties. It was found that the participants had positive overall attitudes towards their learners.
These positive feelings seemed to include all, with little evidence of teachers potentially marginalizing learners through low expectations of their ability to learn.