“This article was published in Teaching and Teacher Education, Vol 25 number 8, Authors: Juli K. Dixon, Lisa A. Egendoerfer and Taylar Clements, "Do They Really Need to Raise Their Hands? Challenging a Traditional Social Norm in a Second Grade Mathematics Classroom", Pages 1067-1076, Copyright Elsevier (November 2009)”.
In an attempt to examine dialogue within a second grade classroom, students were encouraged to participate in whole-class mathematics discussions without raising their hands before speaking. Beneficial social and socio-mathematical norms developed in place of this traditional social norm.
Effects of this change on the dialogue and written mathematical explanations of a class of second grade students are described. Focus was placed on student participation in whole-class discussions.
The study helped to determine the effects of student-centered dialogue on students' mathematical explanations and justifications as demonstrated in the students' discussions, participation, and written expression related to their mathematics learning.