This article was published in Teaching and Teacher Education, Vol 27 number 4,
Author(s): Elly de Bruijn, Yvonne Leeman, "Authentic and Self-directed Learning in Vocational Education: Challenges to Vocational Educators", Pages 694–702, Copyright Elsevier (May 2011).
The current article analyses the dilemmas and practical tensions in implementing competence-based vocational education.
Eleven case studies were conducted in technical secondary vocational education.
These case studies included observation of lessons and interviews with teachers and students.
The results show that schools meet various fundamental issues in realising this approach.
Characteristics like coaching, reflection and authenticity are scarcely found.
To understand these results the article reflects on factors that account for the distance between promising concepts and actual teaching practice.